Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to COVID-19

LAST UPDATED ON 03/15/2021

As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Southcoast Behavioral Health Hospital to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, there are certain restrictions in place regarding on-site visitation at Southcoast Behavioral Health Hospital.

  • These restrictions have been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • Options for telehealth visitation are continuously evaluated so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff receives ongoing infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance is provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit

Oppositional Defiant Disorder Causes & Effects

The signs, symptoms, and effects of oppositional defiant disorder can look different for each person impacted. Learning about oppositional defiant disorder is one of the first steps toward healing.

Understanding Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Learn about oppositional defiant disorder

Impulsive, disruptive, and defiant words and actions are far from uncommon, but for some people these actions rise above the level of temporary, unacceptable behavior. In such cases, the individual in question may have developed oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5), oppositional defiant disorder is characterized by angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness that occurs for at least six months. In order to meet the criteria that the DSM-5 has established for a diagnosis of ODD, a person must exhibit at least four of the following during interactions with someone other than a sibling:

  • Often loses his or her temper
  • Often easily annoyed
  • Often angry and/or resentful
  • Often argues with authority figures
  • Often defies rules or refuses to comply with requests from authority figures
  • Often acts in a manner designed to deliberately annoy others
  • Often blames others for his or her mistakes and/or misbehavior
  • Has acted in a spiteful or vindictive manner at least twice in the past six months

For a person’s behaviors to reach the threshold for an ODD diagnosis, these behaviors must have a negative impact on his or her functioning, or must cause distress within the afflicted individual or within his or her peer group, family, workplace, or other immediate social context.

It is important to emphasize that occasionally acting in a manner that is consistent with one or more of the descriptions above does not mean that a person has ODD. This diagnosis is called for in cases when the behaviors occur persistently and frequently for at least a six-month time frame.

Also, while ODD symptoms most commonly begin to become apparent during childhood or early adolescence, this disorder can impact individuals of all ages.

Effective treatment for oppositional defiant disorder often involves a variety of therapeutic and psychoeducational activities. Depending upon the specific needs of the individual, medication management may also be incorporated into treatment.


Oppositional defiant disorder statistics

Most experts estimate that the overall prevalence of oppositional defiance disorder is between 1% and 11%, with some sources putting the number as high as 16%. In children, ODD is more common among boys than among girls, but among adolescents and adults there does not appear to be a gender-based difference in the rate at which this disorder develops.

Causes and Risk Factors

Causes and risk factors for oppositional defiant disorder

Mental health experts have not identified a clear cause of oppositional defiant disorder, but a variety of genetic and environmental factors are believed to influence the development of this disorder:

Physical: Researchers have identified several neurobiological traits, including lower heart rate and abnormalities in certain sections of the brain, that appear to be prevalent in children who have developed ODD. However, because studies in this area involve subjects who may also have conduct disorder, a definitive relationship between these markers and the development of ODD has not been established.

Environmental: People who were exposed to abusive, neglectful, or otherwise inappropriate parenting practices during childhood appear to be at increased risk for developing ODD. Inconsistent discipline by parents and rejection and/or bullying by peers have also been cited as a potential environmental precursor to the development of ODD.

Risk Factors:

  • High levels of emotional reactivity
  • Poor frustration tolerance
  • Experiencing harsh, inconsistent, or neglectful child-rearing practices
  • Having low heart rate and skin conductance reactivity
  • Having reduced basal cortisol reactivity
  • Having abnormalities in one’s prefrontal cortex and amygdala
Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder

Individuals who have ODD may demonstrate a variety of disruptive or defiant behaviors, with the following being among the more common signs and symptoms:

Behavioral symptoms:

  • Outbursts of anger
  • Acting in a manner that is deliberately designed to annoy others
  • Acting in a spiteful or vindictive manner
  • Persistently arguing with authority figures
  • Refusing to comply with requests from authority figures
  • Actively defying rules
  • Blaming others for one’s own mistakes or unacceptable behaviors

Psychosocial symptoms:

  • Heightened irritability
  • Elevated anger and resentment

Effects of oppositional defiant disorder

Untreated oppositional defiant disorder can have a significantly negative impact on a person’s academic and occupational development, as well as on his or her social wellbeing. The following are among the negative effects of ODD:

  • Academic failure and expulsion
  • Strained or lost peer relationships
  • Social ostracization
  • Discord with siblings and/or parents
  • Job loss and chronic unemployment
  • Substance abuse
  • Financial ruin
  • Legal problems, including incarceration
Co-Occurring Disorders

Oppositional defiant disorder and co-occurring disorders

Individuals who have ODD have an increased likelihood of also experiencing the following co-occurring disorders:

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Substance use disorder

I now am on the road to recovery because of the process groups and my personal therapist at Southcoast. Thank you for helping me get my life together. I am forever grateful!

– Anonymous Client
Marks of Quality Care
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  • The Jason Foundation